How to create energy from waste

Key takeaways

Have you heard of creating energy from waste? Taking rubbish and turning it into volts? 

This process not only reduces the amount of waste sent to landfills but also generates clean, renewable energy. 

In this blog, we’ll explore how to create energy from waste, offering insights into the methods and technologies that make it possible. 

Discover how to generate energy from waste and why it’s an essential part of our sustainable future.

Understanding energy from waste

Energy from waste is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity or heat from the primary treatment of waste. 

It’s a solution to the growing problem of waste management, and it plays a significant role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and our reliance on fossil fuels. 

The two main methods used to generate energy from waste are thermal technologies and biological processes.

Thermal technologies


Incineration is one of the most common methods used to make energy from waste. 

In this process: 

  1. Waste materials are burned at high temperatures. 
  2. The heat produced during combustion is used to boil water, creating steam.
  3. This steam drives turbines connected to generators, producing electricity. 

Modern incineration plants are equipped with advanced pollution control systems to minimise emissions, making them much cleaner than older models.

Gasification and pyrolysis

Gasification and pyrolysis are advanced thermal technologies that convert waste into energy without direct combustion.

  • Gasification involves heating waste materials in a low-oxygen environment to produce syngas (synthetic gas), which consists mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This syngas can be used to generate electricity or processed into fuels and chemicals.
  • Pyrolysis occurs in the absence of oxygen and breaks down organic materials into syngas, bio-oil, and biochar. The syngas can be used to produce electricity, while the bio-oil can be refined into transportation fuels.

Biological processes

Anaerobic digestion

Anaerobic digestion is a biological process that breaks down organic waste in the absence of oxygen. 

Microorganisms decompose the waste, producing biogas (a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide) and digestate (a nutrient-rich substance). 

The biogas can be used to generate electricity and heat, or it can be upgraded to biomethane and used as a renewable natural gas. 

The digestate can be used as a fertiliser, closing the nutrient loop.


Fermentation is another biological process used to create energy from waste, particularly organic waste like food scraps. 

In this process, microorganisms convert sugars in the waste into ethanol, a type of biofuel. 

This ethanol can be blended with gasoline to power vehicles, providing a renewable alternative to fossil fuels.

What’s the most popular method in the UK?

In the UK, one of the most common processes for generating energy from waste is through incineration.

Modern incineration plants in the UK are equipped with advanced emission control technologies to minimise pollutants such as particulates, nitrogen oxides, and sulphur dioxide. 

This process not only helps in reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills but also contributes significantly to the country’s renewable energy targets, providing a stable and reliable source of electricity for homes and industries.

In 2022, Energy from Waste (EfW) facilities contributed around 3.2% to the total net power generation in the UK.

Benefits of energy from waste

The benefits of learning how to make energy from waste are numerous:

  • Waste reduction: Creating energy from waste significantly reduces the volume of waste sent to landfills, mitigating the environmental impact.
  • Energy production: It provides a reliable source of renewable energy, helping to diversify energy sources and enhance energy security.
  • Environmental protection: Energy from waste helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions by diverting waste from landfills, where it would otherwise produce methane, a potent greenhouse gas.
  • Resource recovery: Valuable materials such as metals can be recovered from the waste stream, promoting recycling and resource efficiency.

Challenges and future prospects

While the technology to generate energy from waste is well-established, there are challenges to its widespread adoption. 

Public perception of waste-to-energy plants can be negative due to concerns about emissions and odour. 

However, advancements in technology continue to improve the efficiency and environmental performance of energy from waste facilities.

In the future, we can expect to see more integrated waste management systems that combine various technologies to maximise resource recovery and energy production. 

Policies and incentives that promote circular economy principles will also play a crucial role in advancing the energy from the waste sector.

How to create energy from waste

Understanding how to create energy from waste is essential for building a sustainable future. 

By turning rubbish into volts, we can reduce our environmental footprint, conserve resources, and produce clean energy. 

As technologies advance and public awareness grows, energy from waste will undoubtedly become a cornerstone of modern waste management and renewable energy strategies.

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